The biggest threats to wildlife in Laurel Canyon are development and
fences. If you need a fence to contain pets or children, consider fencing
only a small area of your property, and leaving the rest for natural habitat,
which is in such short supply. If you're planning to develop property,
consider the virtue of a light hand on the environment.
Flora and Fauna
Live Oak Verses Eucalyptus
Loss of Habitat
Things You Can Do
Vegetation in the Laurel Canyon area reflects the conditions of the moist
coastal-facing mountains and the drier valley-facing slopes. All of the
plants and trees are affected by the Pacific Ocean on the one hand and
the dry deserts on the other. The resulting cool, wet winters and hot,
dry summers create a Mediterranean-type ecosystem. By far, the dominant
vegetation sub-type is chaparral. Chaparral is composed of drought and
fire tolerant evergreen shrubs that range in height from four to ten feet.
Unless recently subjected to fire, or some other type of disturbance,
this plant community is generally too dense to penetrate. Another unique
shrub community to Southern California is sage scrub, which varies between
coastal and inland types. Sage scrub vegetation contains fewer stout,
woody shrubs, and more openings with fine, delicate plants. The upper
slopes in Laurel Canyon were almost entirely covered in chaparral or sage
prior to human development.
On the canyon floors, the most common riparian (stream-related) woodland
species are various willows, coast live oak, California sycamore, and
Fremont’s cottonwood. Less common species that are relics of the
last ice age include white alder, big-leaf maple and black cottonwood.
The California Bay Laurel.
On slopes, and in valleys where rainfall concentrates, groves of evergreen
coast live oaks are common. These evergreen oaks provide food (acorns)
and shelter for numerous species of wildlife. Deeper soiled areas in the
Santa Monica Mountains support the deciduous valley oak. A widely dispersed
tree in the area is the California black walnut. Other trees include the
big-coned Douglas fir and the California bay laurel, which gives our canyon
Live Oak Verses Eucalyptus
The oak family, which
includes the coast live oak (Quercus Agrifolia) and the California bay
laurel and from which we get the word "cork", are the most common
large tree species in the Santa Monica Mountains. The coast live oak is
especially critical to the ecosystem because of its resistance to fire
and prodigeous production of acorns, which have been important food sources
for people and wildlife. "Encina has been highly valued by Chumash,
who have used its wood for fuel, bowmaking, games, cooking utensils, and
cradles. They also used its bark for a red dye for hides. They used its
bark and galls in medicine (tannins have astringent properties). Its bellotas
(acorns) have been used as food for at least 5,000 years. The acorns are
dried, finely ground, and leached of tannins, then cooked into an unseasoned
Oaks, which are somewhat protected by three separate city laws, are under
attack from developers and the replacement of vegetation with non-native
species. The worst is the blue gum eucalypus.
largest weed", over 100 of the world's 600 species of eucalyptus
grow here in California. According to the Audubon, "None is native.
They were imported from Australia during the second half of the 19th century.
"Wonder trees," the eucs were called, because they shot up in
coastal scrub and vast redwood clearcuts."
For help in identification, the leaves of a coast live oak and those
of a blue gum eucalyptus.
"Of the many eucalyptus species that evolved with fire, none is more
incendiary than blue gum. "Gasoline trees," firefighters call
them. Fire doesn't kill blue gums. Rather, they depend on fire to open
their seedpods and clear out the competition. And they promote fire with
their prolific combustible oil, copious litter, and long shreds of hanging
bark designed to carry flames to the crowns. Blue gum eucalyptus doesn't
just burn, it explodes, sending firebrands and seeds shooting hundreds
of feet in all directions. Living next to one of these trees is like living
next to a fireworks factory staffed by chain-smokers."
Eucs flower in winter, attracting insects and insectivorous birds. To
deal with the sticky gum, Australian honeyeaters and leaf gleaners have
evolved long bills. North American leaf gleaners such as kinglets, vireos,
and wood warblers have not; so the gum clogs their faces, bills, and nares,
eventually suffocating them or causing them to starve."
Another problem is
their instability. Ecualyptus have shallow root systems and will easily
topple over in strong winds, crushing houses, cars, utility lines and
people. The DWP has declared them a public nuisance.
So, if you've got a eucalyptus growing on your land, get rid of it.
Despite development, Laurel Canyon is rich in wildlife. This richness
is supported by a tenuous network of cross-freeway habitat linkages and
wildlife corridors that keep the various ranges biologically inter-connected.
Population analyses show that without these movement corridors, the Santa
Monica Mountains contain insufficient habitat to support larger mammals.
Predators and prey: Coyote, mule deer and mountain lion. According
to a Franklin Canyon Ranger, there are only a few mountain lions left
in the Santa Monica Mountains. There is at least one confirmed lion living in our area.
The most common medium and large-sized mammals in the area are coyotes,
mule deer, bobcats, raccoons, possum, and skunks. Just away from the urban
edge, other predators, such as grey fox, mountain lion, American badger,
long-tailed weasel, and ringtailed cat, occupy various niches. The ecosystem’s
top predator, the mountain lion, is present everywhere except the fragmented
eastern end of the Santa Monica Mountains that bisects the Los Angeles
metropolitan area. This includes Laurel Canyon. Because of their fear
of humans, however, they are rarely seen. There were black bears in the
Santa Monica Mountains, but they were killed off long ago by settlers.
The abundance of seed produced by the Mediterranean plant communities
supports numerous prey species, such as rabbits, squirrels, rats, mice,
and other rodent species. Seven species of hawks, eight species of owls,
peregrine falcons, golden easgles, northern harriers, American kestrels,
and white-tailed kite share in this bounty of prey. Laurel Canyon is also
part of the Pacific Flyway. As a result, the resident Southern California
bird species often share company with neo-tropical migrants and other
unique species, such as Canadian geese and green parrots. Because of this
transient population of birds, residents should NOT set up bird feeders
as it will delay migrations and create unrealistic dependencies for food.
A red tail hawk and a pair of California alligator lizards. Photo: Clark
There are over eighteen species of snakes and eight species of lizards
in our area. The most common snakes are pacific rattlesnake, gopher snake,
California king snake, and California striped racer. The rattlesnake is
the only venomous snake in California, and they are found in the brush
and along tails in Laurel Canyon. They seek shade during the hottest summer
afternoons and hibernate during winter. Laurel Canyon also supports various
species of frogs, newts and salamanders. As with most parts of the world,
frog populations have declined probably due to climate change and pollution.
When streams ran freely in Laurel Canyon, they probably supported populations
of native fish.
Edited from information supplied by the Santa Monica Mountains Conservancy,
As we are located
on the Pacific Flyway, there are hundreds of birds that make an annual
pilgramage through our canyon. Here's a non-exhaustive list complied by
neighbor, Maria Gritsch. The "M" stands for migrator; most of
the migrators arrive during April and are around through late July.
Dark-Eyed Junco (Oregon race) M
Western Scrub Jay
Common Ground Dove
Ruby-Crowned Kinglet M
Golden-Crowned Kinglet M
Western Tananger M
Hooded Oriole M
Bullock’s Oriole M
Wilson’s Warbler M
Yellow Warbler M
Townsend’s Warbler M
Black-Throated Gray Warbler M
Hermit Warbler M
Nashville Warbler M
Yellow-Rumped Warbler M
Orange-Crowned Warbler M
Western Bluebird M
Black-Headed Grosbeak M
Summer Grosbeak M
Rufous Hummingbird M
Allen’s Hummingbird M
Calliope Hummingbird M
Black-Chinned Hummingbird M
Loss of Habitat
After more than four years observing the movement of carnivores in the
Santa Monica Mountains surrounding Los Angeles, National Parks research
scientist Ray Sauvajot feels confident in predicting the future of coyotes,
bobcats, foxes and mountain lions in the area. Whereas most local residents
never see these animals, Sauvajot has direct and regular contact with
them. If the past is any indication of the future, Sauvajot does not foresee
a happy future for most of these species.
The Santa Monica Mountains provide a haven for 450 animal species, including
such rare species as the golden eagle, mountain lion and bobcat. Yet given
the pace of development in the Los Angeles region, it is unlikely that
these animals will be able to survive in increasingly small pockets of
wilderness. Indeed, scientists estimate that 1400 acres annually fall
prey to development in the Santa Monica Mountains alone. Given that a
mountain lion needs many square miles of uninterrupted wilderness to survive,
it is clear that it will soon be impossible for the animal to remain in
the region unless drastic steps are taken to halt the consumption of open
Things You Can Do To Protect Native Plants
Don't erect fences
that limit wildlife movement.
Don't install bird feeders as they delay migration and create dependencies.
Don't trim taller trees during the spring nesting season.
Don't use poison to kill rats and goffers. Predators and scavengers may
eat the dead animal and injest the poison.
Keep cats and small dogs indoors as coyotes will attack them.
Be careful driving at night as mule deer and coyotes are active at night
and will roam on the streets.
Plant only native shrubs and trees. They use less water and will help
maintain the eco-system of the canyon.
Do not plant or tolerate eucalyptus trees on your land.
Use vegetation and terracing to hold steep hillsides together. Avoid clearling
brush to the dirt or spraying hillsides with cement.
If you encounter a wounded animal in a city, the California Wildlife Center
will rescue it. Please refer to their website for information: www.californiawildlifecenter.org/homepage.htm
Remember: Every resident is a custodian of the greenbelt called the Santa
Monica Mountains. It is your responsibility to preserve natural habitat.
Back to the Top
Your Laurel Canyon Association
Geology and Climate
Early Canyon History
View From Lookout Mtn, 1906
20th Century Canyon History
Flora and Fauna
Quality of Life Issues
What To Do: Fire
What To Do: Rain & Flood
A Blueprint For Paradise